Quarry Bank Mill – Industrial facts and landmarks

| September 13, 2012 | 0 Comments
Facebook Twitter Linkedin Plusone Digg Reddit Stumbleupon Pinterest Email

Quarry Bank Mill: Dates, figures, and facts

Quarry bank Mill and Styal, is one of the most important industrial heritage sites in the world, this article is for people who are interested in textiles and how the Industrial revolution began in Manchester the North of England. (5)

1733 – Flying Shuttle – Kay improved the handloom shuttle, making it easier to throw the shuttle across the loom and for one weaver to weave wider cloth.

1748 – Carding Machine Lewis Paul – Paul’s machine separated and combed the cotton or wool fibres through drums and rollers to clean and straighten them.

1764 – Spinning Jenny – James Hargreaves – Hargreaves’s Spinning Jenny allowed several fine weft threads to be spun at one time enabling spinners to produce more threads.

1769 – Water Frame – Richard Arkwright – Arkwright’s Water Frame was the first machine to spin cotton for both the warp and the weft producing a coarse thread.

1779 – Spinning Mule – Samuel Crompton – Crompton’s Spinning Mule combined elements of the spinning Jenny and Water Frame allowing a strong, fine thread to be spun.

1785 – Power Loom Edmund Cartwright – Cartwright’s Power Loom was the first to weave cloth with power from waterwheels or steam engines.  Further development was needed before it was widely adopted.

Making Cloth - Calico coming off the looms

Samuel Greg

Born into a wealthy mercantile family he went on to forge a successful career in business.

35 King Street

Home to the Hydes whose business Samuel inherited.  The business was worth £26,00 in 1782.

Marriage

Marrying Hannah Lightbody in 1789 brought £10,000 and some useful contacts.

The Right Friends

Good business contacts and wealthy friends made it easier for Samuel to borrow money to invest in his business.

People

With the growth of population there was not enough work for people on the land.  They had to seek other employment such as in factories.  Up to 1820, half the workers at Quarry Bank Mill were children.  They were cheaper to employ and easier to control than adults.

Machines and Work

Samuel’s Greg’s loomshop at Eyam required a regular supply of good quality yarn to weave into cloth.  He realised that he could control this supply of yarn by building his own mill.

Quarry Bank Mill

Less than £5,000 to build in 1784 plus machinery, a total cost of just £16,000.

Trade and Transport

Styal was ideal for water power but it was very isolated.  Samuel had to rely on the Bridgewater Canal and horse and cart to transport cotton to and from the Mill.  Raw cotton came via the Port of Liverpool.  Samuel was probably one of the first manufactures to import cotton from America.

By the time of his death Samuel’s business was worth £319,000 (12.8 million pounds in today’s terms).

Industrial Revolution

Britain was the first country in the world to have an Industrial revolution. The theories centre on four factors, People, Trade & Transport, Machines and Money.

People

For centuries, England population grew slowly, reaching about 5 million by 1700, mostly living in the countryside.  Then, in the 1700s, the population began to grow more quickly.  Improvements in agriculture meant that more food was available.  Fewer children died and adults lived longer.  More people needed clothes and other goods.  By 1851 England and Wales had nearly 18 million people, with over half living in towns.

Trade & Transport

In the 1700s, the British Empire grew as Britain established colonies or took over foreign countries, and trade increased as a result.  Britain imported cheap raw materials and sold manufactured goods across the world.

One of the most profitable operations was the “triangular trade”, As they sailed around the world, fewer ships travelled without cargo: expenses were reduced and profits increased.  Cotton brought from West Indies and America was part of this trade.

Trade at home improved as a network of new canals allowed goods to be transported around the country more easily.

Machines

More people meant a greater demand for cloth.  This encouraged manufactures to find new ways to spin yarn and weave cloth faster.

New inventions – the water frame, the flying shuttle – meant more cloth could be produced more quickly and at lower prices.  Demand for the cheaper cloth rose as all classes of society started to wear cotton clothing.

More money was invested in building larger factories and bigger and better machines, producing even more cloth at even cheaper prices.

Cloth made in the North West of England was sold all over the world.

Money

In the 1700s, the British Empire grew as Britain established colonies or took over foreign countries, and trade increased as a result.  Britain imported cheap raw materials and sold manufactured goods across the world.

One of the most profitable operations was the “triangular trade”.  As they sailed around the world, fewer ships travelled without cargo: expenses were reduced and profits increased.  Cotton brought from the West Indies and America was part of this trade.

Trade at home improved as a network of new canals allowed goods to be transported around the country more easily.

Until the 1700s, many businessman found it difficult to borrow money, particularly if they did not have any rich relations or were starting up on their own.

In 1694, the Bank of England was founded, followed by many other banks.

Now merchants could borrow and save money more easily.  Paper money and cheques came into common use.

The amount of money available to be invested in business was also boosted by the wealth created from the growth in international trade.

Samuel Greg

Born into a wealthy mercantile family he went on to forge a successful career in business.

35 King Street

Home to the Hydes whose business Samuel inherited.  The business was worth £26,00 in 1782.

Marriage

Marrying Hannah Lightbody in 1789 brought £10,000 and some useful contacts.

The Right Friends

Good business contacts and wealthy friends made it easier for Samuel to borrow money to invest in his business.

People

With the growth of population there was not enough work for people on the land.  They had to seek other employment such as in factories.  Up to 1820, half the workers at Quarry Bank Mill were children.  They were cheaper to employ and easier to control than adults.

Machines and Work

Samuel’s Greg’s loomshop at Eyam required a regular supply of good quality yarn to weave into cloth.  He realised that he could control this supply of yarn by building his own mill.

Quarry Bank Mill

Less than £5,000 to build in 1784 plus machinery, a total cost of just £16,000.

Trade and Transport

Styal was ideal for water power but it was very isolated.  Samuel had to rely on the Bridgewater Canal and horse and cart to transport cotton to and from the Mill.  Raw cotton came via the Port of Liverpool.  Samuel was probably one of the first manufactures to import cotton from America.

By the time of his death Samuel’s business was worth £319,000 (12.8 million pounds in today’s terms).

Industrial Revolution

Britain was the first country in the world to have an Industrial revolution. The theories center on four factors, People, Trade & Transport, Machines and Money.

People

For centuries, England population grew slowly, reaching about 5 million by 1700, mostly living in the countryside.  Then, in the 1700s, the population began to grow more quickly.  Improvements in agriculture meant that more food was available.  Fewer children died and adults lived longer.  More people needed clothes and other goods.  By 1851 England and Wales had nearly 18 million people, with over half living in towns.

Trade & Transport

In the 1700s, the British Empire grew as Britain established colonies or took over foreign countries, and trade increased as a result.  Britain imported cheap raw materials and sold manufactured goods across the world.

One of the most profitable operations was the “triangular trade”, As they sailed around the world, fewer ships travelled without cargo: expenses were reduced and profits increased.  Cotton brought from West Indies and America was part of this trade.

Trade at home improved as a network of new canals allowed goods to be transported around the country more easily.

Machines

More people meant a greater demand for cloth.  This encouraged manufactures to find new ways to spin yarn and weave cloth faster.

New inventions – the water frame, the flying shuttle – meant more cloth could be produced more quickly and at lower prices.  Demand for the cheaper cloth rose as all classes of society started to wear cotton clothing.

More money was invested in building larger factories and bigger and better machines, producing even more cloth at even cheaper prices.

Cloth made in the North West of England was sold all over the world.

Money

In the 1700s, the British Empire grew as Britain established colonies or took over foreign countries, and trade increased as a result.  Britain imported cheap raw materials and sold manufactured goods across the world.

One of the most profitable operations was the “triangular trade”.  As they sailed around the world, fewer ships travelled without cargo: expenses were reduced and profits increased.  Cotton brought from the West Indies and America was part of this trade.

Trade at home improved as a network of new canals allowed goods to be transported around the country more easily.

Until the 1700s, many businessman found it difficult to borrow money, particularly if they did not have any rich relations or were starting up on their own.

In 1694, the Bank of England was founded, followed by many other banks.

Please note the article about Quarry Bank Mill is split over several posts.

Published by Helen Rowlands, 13th September 2012

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Category: Art Reviews, Textile Design